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I. Belgian beguinages

II. History, life, spirituality

III. Beatrice of Nazareth

life and context

7 Manners


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Bibliographia Beatricis




The following books are a list of secondary literature on Beatrice's life and work:

(with thanks for some of the comments to Other Women's Voices at

- Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg. "The In-carnation of Beatrice of Nazareth's Theology". In: New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: the Holy Women of Liège and Their Impact. Eds. Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Brepols, 1999, pp.61-80.

- A bibliography can be found in: Lewis, Gertrud Jaron. Bibliographie zur deutchen Frauenmystik des Mittelalters. Berlin, E. Schmidt, 1989.

- Bradley, Rosemary, "Beatrice of Nazareth (c.1200-1268)". In: Anne Clark Bartlett  et. al, eds., Vox mystica: essays on medieval mysticism in honor of Professor Valerie M. Lagorio. Cambridge, D.S. Brewer, 1995. This article analyzes both Seven manieren van minnen and the Vita, and includes bibliographical references.

- De Ganck, Roger. "Introduction". In: (Beatrice of Nazareth.) The Life of Beatrice of Nazareth (translated and annotated by Roger De Ganck, assisted by John Baptist Hasbrouck). Kalamazoo, Mich., Cistercian Publ., 1991, pp.289-331. (vol. 50 of the Cistercian Fathers Series). I refer to this introduction as De Ganck, 1991a.

- De Ganck, Roger. Beatrice of Nazareth in her context. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Cistercian Publications, 1991, 2 vols. (Cistercian studies series; no. 121-122). Vol.1: Beatrice of Nazareth and the thirteenth-century mulieres religiosae of the Low Countries. is an analysis of the period. Vol.2: Towards unification with God is a study of Beatrice' spirituality as revealed in the Vita, and includes bibliographical references and indexes. I refer to this work as De Ganck, 1991b.

- Hogenelst, Dini and Van Oostrom, Frits. Handsgeschreven Wereld, Nederlandse Literatuur en Cultuur in de Middeleeuwen. Amsterdam, Prometheus, 1995, mentions Beatrice's literary contribution on pp.131-136.

- Hollywood, Amy, "Beatrice of Nazareth and Her Hagiographer," in: Catherine M. Mooney, ed., Gendered voices: medieval saints and their interpreters (foreword by Caroline Walker Bynum). Philadelphia, University Pennsylvania Press, 1999. (The Middle Ages series) In this article Hollywood compares Seven manieren van minnen and the vita, showing how the clerical author of the vita takes Beatrice's wholly internal experience and turns it into a bodily experience suitable to conventional hagiography. Hollywood's notes give the Dutch and Latin originals of her translations.

- McGinn, Bernard. The Flowering of Mysticism: Men and Women in the New Mysticism (1200-1350). Vol.3 of The presence of God. New York, Crossroad, 1998 has a discussion of Seven manieren on pp.166-174. McGinn's notes give full bibliographic information on translations and studies; they also give the original of all translated passages.

- Ruh, Kurt. Geschichte der abendländischen Mystik, Band 2: Frauenmystik und Franziskanische Mystik der Frühzeit. München, C.H. Beck, 1990, devotes a chapter to Beatrice on pp. 137-157.

- Vekeman, Herman. "Beatrijs van Nazareth. Die Mystik einer Zisterzienserin". In: Dinzelbacher, Peter and Bauer, Dieter R., eds. Frauenmystik im Mittelalter. Ostfildern bei Stuttgart, Schwabenverlag, 1985, pp.78-98.

- Zum Brunn, Emilie and Epiney-Burgard, Georgette.  "Beatrice of Nazareth."  In: Women Mystics in Medieval Europe.  New York, Paragon House, 1989, pp. 71-85.